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Wine and wine grapes


The Cape wine-growing areas, situated in the narrow viticultural zone of the southern hemisphere, mainly have a Mediterranean climate. The mountain slopes and valleys form the ideal habitat for the wine grape Vitis vinifera, the products of which have given pleasure to humankind for many centuries. Long, sun-drenched summers and mild, wet winters contribute to the ideal conditions for viticulture. The Western Cape produces over 90% of South Africa’s wines.

The wine industry in South Africa goes beyond what is usually understood by the word “wine”. Brandy and its building blocks – rebate wine and distilling wine – as well as grape juice and its concentrate are included, as wine grapes are used to produce all these.

The products below all are relevant to this page.

  • Natural wine is non-fortified and non-sparkling wine. It also includes any grape juice or must and grape juice or must concentrate used in the sweetening of such natural wine.
  • Fortified wine is non-sparkling wine which has been fortified with wine spirit and has a higher alcohol level than natural wine.
  • Sparkling wine which includes any grape juice or must and grape juice or must concentrate used in the sweetening of such sparkling wine.
  • Rebate wine is wine specially prepared for double distillation in a copper pot still and then, as distillate, maturation for a period of at least three years in oak casks with a capacity of not more than 340 litres.
  • Distilling wine is wine specially prepared for distillation to spirits intended for use in other spirits, for fortification of wine or for industrial purposes.
  • Non-alcoholic refers to unfermented, undiluted or concentrated juice from grapes destined for use in non-alcoholic products such as fruit juices.


The wine industry is an important contributor to the economy of the Western Cape region of South Africa. Perhaps, even more important than the direct economic impact of employment and foreign exchange generation is the unique position of wine (and to some extent wine tourism) in generating images of South Africa abroad.

Source: A Profile of the South African Wine Market Value Chain, available at 

Viticulture (from the Latin word for vine) is the science, production and study of grapes which deals with the series of events that occur in the vineyard. When the grapes are used for winemaking, it is also known as viniculture. It is one branch of the science of horticulture.

Oenology (Enology – US English) is the science of wine and winemaking i.e. after vine-growing and grape harvesting.

International overview

The EU produces 62% of the world’s wine in 2022, with Spain, France and Italy the top producers (BFAP, 2023).

Further reference:

  • Find the statistics menu option at, website of the International Organisation of Vine and Wine (Organisation Internationale de la Vigne et du Vin – OIV).
  • A global overview is given in the annual Bureau for Food and Agricultural Policy (BFAP) Baseline. Find the document at
  • World Wine Trade Group (WWTG)
  •, wine ratings, features etc
  •, wine reviews, news and more
  •, “Jamie Goode’s online wine magazine”


South Africa: imports and exports

All wines for export must be granted an export licence. Samples of each batch of wine destined for foreign countries are sent to the Wine & Spirit Board at Nietvoorbij, Stellenbosch where they undergo detailed tasting tests and chemical analysis in the laboratories before licenses are granted. An official seal is given to each bottle by the Wine & Spirit Board, which verifies that the claims made on the label regarding origin, vintage and grape variety are true.

The South African Wine Industry Information & Systems (SAWIS) South African Export Report breaks down exports into Export and Packaged Export, and then lists top countries by value of exports and then by volume of exports (million litres).

Further reference:

Local business environment

Wine accounts for 10% of the total alcoholic beverage consumption in South Africa (SAWIS, 2020). A comprehensive plan called the Wine Industry Strategy Exercise (WISE) project seeks to increase the domestic consumption of wine to at least 450 million litres by the 2024/25 Marketing Year.

Currently, more than 2 487 farmers cultivate some 89 384 hectares of land under vines (WOSA, 2024). The main wine grape producing areas are Worcester, Paarl, Stellenbosch, Malmesbury, Robertson, the Olifants River, the Orange River and the Little Karoo. A description of the wine-growing areas can be read at

An extensive distribution network of wholesalers and retailers, as well as co-operative cellars, estates and other organisations which market wine directly ensure that wine products reach consumers around the country. The huge increase in trade and consumer shows, wine festivals, food and wine festivals and regional festivals has also created an important channel though which wine can be brought directly to the consumer.

The industry contributes to the economy via wine tourism, agriculture, manufacturing, trade and hospitality while generating direct and indirect employment for around 269 096 people throughout the value chain (WOSA, 2024). Twelve consecutive months without the COVID-era restrictions saw the industry generate producer revenue of R7.4 billion, exports of R10.0 billion, and domestic sales before excise tax and VAT of R18.2 billion (SAWIS, 2023).

Further reference:

  • Find “Some articles” under the last heading on this page for recent updates.
  • Download the 2023 South African Wine Harvest Report at
  • Find the “Information & statistics” option at and the industry overview given by WOSA at
  • The annual BFAP Baseline includes wine and wine grapes in its projections. Find the document at
  • The SA Wine Industry Directory includes key organisations, producer-businesses, and brands in the industry. These range from boutique outfits, right through private cellars and estate wineries, to co-ops and producing wholesalers. See
  • DALRRD’s A Profile of the South African Wine Market Value Chain includes a look at production areas, competitiveness of wine exports, entry barriers in some overseas markets and a SWOT analysis (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats). Find the document of the Directorate Marketing’s web pages at





Ethical trading, responsible alcohol consumption and socio-economic upliftment


Broad-Based Black Economic Empowerment (B-BBEE)

The Wine Industry Transformation Charter is regarded by government as a sub-charter of the AgriBEE Charter. It includes scorecards, guidelines and commitment statements from all role players in the wine industry, including the government, to work towards the sustainable implementation of black economic empowerment, land reform and transformation in the wine industry. Find the “B-BBEE” option at

As part of the industry’s commitment to black economic empowerment, transformation and land reform, government, together with organisations, individual producers and related businesses, are actively involved in setting up new producers from historically disadvantaged groups, supporting and uplifting farm workers and their communities, assisting new producers with regard to marketing and access to related services, and offering training.

  • Black Association of the Wine & Spirit Industry (Bawsi) BAWSI agitates for the improvement of living conditions of people living on farms and empowerment within this industry.
  • The Cape Winemakers Guild (CWG) has several initiatives like Cape Winemakers Guild Protégé Programme (Oenology and Viticulture), Bursaries for Final Year and Post-Graduate Oenology and Viticulture Students, Wine Training South Africa and the mentorship programme Circle of Excellence. Read about these at
  • The Wine Arc A “brand home for black-owned wine brands and entrepreneurs and a symbol of South Africa’s wine industry transformation”
  • VinPro Transformation & Development division This section of VinPro strives to be a one-stop service – a central point producers can contact when they become involved in B-BBEE.
  • SA Wine Industry Transformation Unit (WITU) The aim of WITU is “to generate and promote equitable access and participation within the wine value chain in and for the wine industry”. This is the first of nine bullet points. Read more on the website.


Environmental issues

South African wine producers are increasingly aware of the importance of protecting indigenous plant species and environmentally friendly viticulture, and this is used as a unique marketing tool in overseas markets, where consumers are showing a marked preference for wines produced under environmentally friendly conditions.

The Integrated Production of Wine (IPW) is a technical system for sustainable wine production, covering the wine industry as a whole. One of the main principles of the IPW system is that production should be in harmony with nature. The system was created in 1998 and published in accordance with the Liquor Products Act 60 of 1989. It includes guidelines and recommendations on what should be done, as well as minimum standards. See

Sustainable Wine South Africa (SWSA) Find “A new seal for South African wines, a world first” on YouTube.

WWF-SA The Biodiversity and Wine Initiative (BWI) is a partnership concluded by the South African wine industry and the conservation sector with a view to reducing further encroachment upon the endangered natural habitat to a minimum and contributing to sustainable wine production by accepting guidelines on biodiversity. Visit for more information.

Explore South African WWF Conservation Champion wine farms using the Android or iOS app at

National strategy and government contacts

On the Department of Agriculture, Land Reform and Rural Development (DALRRD) website,, find information on and contact details for the following directorates:

  • Directorate: Food Safety and Quality Assurance Division Liquor Products. Read the Info Pak “Division Liquor Products” which informs on the responsibilities of this DALRRD division.
  • Directorate: Food Import and Export Standards
  • Manager: National Analytical Services


Information includes the Agricultural Products Standards Act, 1990 (Act No 119 of 1990), an Export manual (for liquor products), and Procedures to import liquor products.

Regulations and legislation

You are invited to contact the following for information on how regulations and legislation impact the wine industry:

  • South African Liquor Brand Owners’ Association (SALBA) – for customs and excise duty, liquor licensing
  • Wine and Spirit Board – for certification, government regulations: 021 889 6555
  • WOSA – for export requirements: 

Role players

Further reference:

Companies involved

  • The South African Wine Industry Directory include lists of companies and co-operatives. See for details.


Associations and representative bodies

  • SOUTH AFRICA WINE “A single voice for the industry”
  • South African Liquor Brand Owners’ Association (SALBA) represents manufacturers and distributors of liquor products on issues of common interest e.g. lobbying government on regulatory matters.
  • South African Wine Industry Information & Systems (SAWIS) supports the wine industry through the collection, analysis and dissemination of industry information, and the administration of the industry’s Wine of Origin system.
  • VinPro represents wine producers, cellars and industry stakeholders on issues that have an impact on the profitability and sustainability of its members and the industry as a whole e.g. technical expertise and specialised services ranging from soil science to viticulture, agricultural economics and transformation and development.
  • Wines of South Africa (WOSA) represents producers of wine who export their products and is recognised by government as an Export Council.
  • Vinpro and Salba also maintain a WineBiz desk from the offices of Agbiz in Pretoria. See


Cultivar development groups


Regional wine associations and wine routes


Find other associations and NGOs under the “Industry issues” sub-heading heading earlier.

Education and training

  • Cape Peninsular University of Technology (CPUT) Food Technology – National Diplomas in agriculture and agricultural management, as well as BTech Crop Production (viticulture and oenology) and MTech degrees (viticulture only).
  • Cape Wine Academy – A wide range of courses, from appreciation to an in-depth knowledge of wine, are offered at different levels to the public, tertiary institutions for hospitality and tourism, and traders in the liquor industry.
  • Elsenburg Agricultural Training Institute – B Agric en B Agric degrees (Cellar Technology, and a Diploma (Cellar Technology) comprising wine chemistry, microbiology, oenology, marketing, legislation and management.
  • FoodBev Seta is the SETA responsible for facilitating education and training in the food and beverages manufacturing sector.
  • South African Agri Academy Practical training in the industry, focusing on strategic market access and exports, and mentorships for emerging producers in the wine industry.
  • Stellenbosch University (i) Dept of Viticulture & Oenology – Undergraduate and postgraduate degrees in Agriculture, Agricultural Administration and the opportunity to specialise in Viticulture and Oenology. (ii) South African Grape and Wine Research Institute (SAGWRI) – Postgraduate studies in Agriculture or Viticulture and Wine Biotechnology from an honours degree to a doctorate. This is part of the Department of Viticulture & Oenology.
  • Wine Training South Africa Workshops and accredited training


Research and development

Several institutions and research bodies undertake important research, and the knowledge gleaned from this is ploughed back into the industry in the form of journals, magazines, and presentations at information days or farmers’ days. Producers pay a statutory levy, part of which is allocated to research. Government institutions, private businesses, financial institutions and so forth also contribute financially.

  • ARC Infruitec-Nietvoorbij,  a world-renowned, one-stop research facility for industries such as deciduous fruit, grapes, wine, brandy and several others. The campus supplies a needs-driven service in order to ensure the economic viability and growth of these industries, and research is strictly focused on practical implementation.
  • ARC-Plant Health and Protection – Research on vineyard pests
  • South African Grape and Wine Research Institute (SAGWRI) replaces the previous Institute for Wine Biotechnology (IWBT).
  • SA Society for Enology and Viticulture (SASEV) serves “as a forum for presenting the latest scientific information to all South African wine and grape producers to improve the quality of South African wines and related products, and to make this technology available internationally”.
  • Vine Improvement Association – manages the South African Plant Certification Scheme for Wine Grapes as provided by the Plant Improvement Act 53 of 1976. Plant improvement occurs uniformly by applying regulations regarding vine cultivation and the selection, evaluation, testing and release of viticultural material.
  • VinPro – research projects are conducted, usually with the producer in mind. Technology is also made available by the VinPro Consultation Service via its regional viticultural consultants, soil scientist and oenologist.

Websites and publications

Refer to the websites and publications listed earlier on this page like and

  • Visit the Wine Farms South Africa website,
  • In addition to the South African Wine Industry DirectoryWineLand Media also does other publications like WineLand and the VinPro Cost Guide. Visit for more information.
  • Documents like the Certification Manual and Labelling guide for South African wine are available from SAWIS. Find details at
  • Find details of the South African Journal for Enology and Viticulture at
  • I and M Futureneer Advisors Pty Ltd. 2023. The Economic Value of the Wine Tourism Industry. Available at
  • A series of full colour pamphlets from the ARC Infruitec-Nietvoorbij discusses how to identify, control and prevent various diseases and pests in the vineyard. Call 021 809 3100.
  • Order online at, call 012 842 4017 or send an email to stoltze [at] for the following publication, available from the ARC Agricultural EngineeringAgro-processing of fermented beverages –Wine.
  • Find the annual Industrial Products: Wine Market Value Chain or “A Profile of the South African Wine Market Value Chain” on the DALRRD’s Directorate Marketing’s web pages at
  • Find the Nation in Conversation overview of the wine and whisky industry (Jan 2017) on YouTube.
  • Read about (and order) The Wine Kingdom: Celebrating conservation in the Cape winelands at
  • Find books like Biodynamic Wine Guide 2011 and Biodynamic Wine-Growing: Theory and Practice: A Practical Guide to the Theory and Practice of Biodynamic Wine-Growing by Monty Waldin on and Google Books.
  • “Buy wine direct from the cellar”,
  • The Wine Farmer, an online shop selling “some of the best family wines”

Some articles

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